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Adoption of external GenAI tools among top banks and insurers


In a recent survey of 26 of the world’s biggest banks and insurers, three quarters, 75%, of firms said that they have started using external GenAI tools in operations, with the most popular being Microsoft Copilot. This has been used by over 61% of those surveyed, followed by ChatGPT 52% and Google Bard/Gemini 9%.

The study is based on survey results and discussion with a range of operational risk experts from the ORX Data Science and ORX Cyber communities. 

However, almost a fifth of firms (17%) have yet to decide where oversight responsibility resides, leading to a lack of clarity on a single ‘best practice’ approach regarding which functions and teams should be involved. 

The Risk Management Considerations for Generative AI report, available to ORX members and ORX Cyber subscribers, suggests that the conversation is shifting away from whether to allow the use of these tools, and more towards the potential benefits. This is echoed in the report with 75% of firms saying that they have an AI use policy in place or are planning to put one in place within the next 18 months. However, it seems that more needs to be done within some firms to effectively communicate these policies.  


“Only last October (2023), the picture regarding the use of GenAI in daily operations was very different, with many banks and insurers taking a cautious approach or even blocking access, mainly to ChatGPT.  Since then, we’ve seen a slight shift and some firms have been using pilot exercises to explore the value of these tools and understanding use cases. 

Microsoft Copilot features highly, with some firms deploying it across the whole organisation. This is perhaps due in part to the fact that Copilot is integrated with the Microsoft ecosystem that many firms use.”

Steve Bishop, Research and Information Director ORX


There have been several successful approaches adopted by banking and insurance firms for managing GenAI risks. Some examples of these strategies are: 

  • Establishing a cross-functional approach to managing the risks, engaging relevant stakeholders across the firm 
  • Clear governance structure, for example establishing an AI governance committee 
  • Taking a cautious approach to the use of AI tools and internal use cases 
  • Providing guidance 

Most of the surveyed firms are currently applying a cross-functional approach to ensure adequate oversight and management of risks driven by GenAI. There is a recognition among respondents that these risks are still evolving and ensuring input from a variety of risk professionals and stakeholders helps to better understand and manage these.  Overall, 75% of firms say that oversight of risks associated with GenAI lies with operational risk functions, but in partnership with other functions, such as technology, cyber, legal, and compliance teams. 


“Financial firms are trying to manage the balance between the potential of GenAI to innovate and improve efficiencies and the risks its use can bring. They are now trying to make sure they have robust oversight and governance in place.

From our study and discussions with our communities, it seems likely that firms will take a cross-functional approach to managing these risks for the foreseeable future. The means involving a variety of relevant risk functions and stakeholders. The majority are also considering how they will scale this oversight approach to meet the expected increase in use.” 

Steve Bishop, Research and Information Director ORX


The main risk concern of GenAI identified by respondents in the report was privacy, the unauthorised use or disclosure of personal or sensitive information, followed by impaired fairness and security threats. Despite much media profile regarding the ESG impacts of GenAI models, firms are least concerned with these impacts. It is expected that this will change over time as the adoption of these technologies accelerates and becomes more embedded into business processes.